The Whole Tooth: New Method to Find Biological Sex From a Single Tooth

A team led by UC Davis researchers have come up with a new way to estimate the biological sex of human skeletal remains based on protein traces from teeth.

Tooth of a European-American buried in San Francisco in the 1850s. A new technique developed at UC Davis allows archaeologists
to find a person’s biological sex based on a single tooth. (Jelmer Eerkens)

Estimating the sex of human remains is important for archaeologists who want to understand ancient societies and peoples. Researchers can measure features of bones that differ between males and females, usually the pelvis. But skeletons of children and adolescents don’t show these structural changes, and often sites may only yield a few pieces of bone.

Livestreaming From The Sea Floor

The Schmidt Ocean Institute R/V Falkor is exploring hydrothermal vents off the coast of Mexico. (Schmidt Ocean Institute)

Robert Zierenberg, professor emeritus of geology at UC Davis, is currently Chief Scientist on the R/V Falkor, on a cruise exploring hydrothermal vents off the time of Baja, Mexico. The Falkor, owned by the Schmidt Ocean Institute, is using remote operated vehicles to explore the newly discovered vents and live  streaming the dives online.

Information on the cruise can be found on the SOI web site and the scientists onboard are posting blogs in both English and Spanish about their research on the site.

Exploring the Role of Redox and Bioelectric Players in Tissue Regeneration

Regeneration of a lost limb is arguably one of the seven wonders of biology. While you can’t grow a new arm, a humble tadpole can grow a new tail in a week. Seeking a better understanding of limb regeneration, Min Zhao, professor of dermatology and ophthalmology at the University of California, Davis, and graduate student Fernando Ferreira (also at University of Minho, Portugal) are studying the relationship of redox players, like oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, with bioelectricity, including membrane potential and electric currents, to pinpoint how a tadpole can regrow an amputated tail.

Detecting E.coli Strains Using Molecular Electronics

New technology developed by Josh Hihath and colleagues at UC Davis uses atomically fine electrodes to suspend a DNA probe that binds target RNA. The device is able to detect as little as a one-base change in RNA, enough to detect toxic strains of E. coli.

By Aditi Risbud Bartl

Finding a fast and inexpensive way to detect specific strains of bacteria and viruses is critical to food safety, water quality, environmental protection and human health. However, current methods for detecting illness-causing strains of bacteria such as E. coli require either time-intensive biological cell cultures or DNA amplification approaches that rely on expensive laboratory equipment.

Diagnosing and Treating Personality Disorders Needs a Dynamic Approach

By Karen Nikos-Rose

Someone who is “neurotic” does not necessarily show anger or anxiety in a given situation, even though those are generally accepted traits of a person with that personality style.

New UC Davis research suggests that lumping those with personality disorders into a package of traits should be left behind for more dynamic analysis instead. Those who study and treat people with personality disorders need to more deeply look at personality dynamics and variation over time, not just box people into specific categories or traits.

UC Davis psychologist Chris Hopwood wants to take a more dynamic view of personality traits and disorders.

Grant to Improve Poultry Production Worldwide

USAID awards second phase of funding to Genomics to Improve Poultry Innovation Lab 

By Diane Nelson

Throughout Africa, chickens are vital to family nourishment, income and food security. But African poultry production is threatened by an extremely virulent Newcastle disease virus that can decimate entire flocks within days.

UC Davis Animal Science Professor Huaijun Zhou with white leghorn chickens at a UC Davis facility. Zhou uses genetic and genomic techniques to breed chickens that are more resistant to disease and heat stress for developing world farmers. (Gregory Urquiaga)

Study Explores How Fruit Flies Navigate Unstable Convective Air

By Greg Watry

Drosophila melanogaster

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster lives in deserts and also urban environments with many hot surfaces and resulting air currents. (Photo: Sanjay Acharya)

When insects migrate over vast distances, many take advantage of a natural phenomenon called thermal convection, which causes flow movement when air at different temperatures interact. Hitching a ride on invisible rollercoasters called convection cells, insects—like aphids and spiders—follow the flow of warm air upwards and cold air downwards.

“They are floating up to 3,000 feet,” said Victor Ortega-Jimenez, an assistant project scientist in the Combes Lab at UC Davis, of this movement. “All these clouds of insects are floating up there and moving in these convection cell patterns.”

How Rants on Social Media Can Come Back to Haunt You

UC Davis study finds that negative chat has a much longer tail and stronger snowball effect than positive chat

By Karen Nikos-Rose

We all know that those angry rants on social media can come back to hurt you—and sooner than you think. “Good,” positive chat resonates for a few seconds, generally, but negative chat, even in a chat room where exchanges happen more immediately than on Facebook or Twitter, persists for many minutes, new UC Davis research suggests.

Seth Frey

Cognitive scientist Seth Frey used millions of chat room messages to study how positive and negative messages reflected back to their senders.

On the Internet of Things, Computer Security Experts Aim to Keep Malware in Check

By Aditi Risbud Bartl

Networks of electronic information are embedded in nearly every aspect of our daily lives. From transportation and utility systems to telecommunication, everything from personal privacy to national security depends on maintaining the integrity of information in cyberspace.

Chess pieces

As the Internet of Things expands, UC Davis computer security experts Matt Bishop and Sam King are looking for ways to checkmate hackers and intruders. (Getty Images)

Seeing Plants in Three Dimensions

Scientists are taking a new look at the inner workings of plants by imaging and modeling them in three dimensions.

“We’ve realized tremendous advances in technology for 3-D imaging of leaves,” said Tom Buckley, assistant professor of plant sciences at UC Davis.

Plant scientists are getting new insight by imaging and modeling leaves in three dimensions. (Image: University of Sydney)

Recent developments are summarized in an article in Trends in Plant Sciences, which sprang from a 2017 workshop at the University of Sydney organized by Buckley and Professor Margaret Barbour, University of Sydney.