By Lisa Howard
Soil Actually Has a Microbiome
Gut bacteria have been getting a lot of attention lately (yogurt, anyone?) but it turns out the soil in your own back yard is teeming with microbial life. According to Kate Scow, a professor of soil science and microbial ecology at UC Davis, a quarter teaspoon of soil can easily contain a billion bacterial cells. And she estimates there can be 10,000 to 50,000 different taxa of microbes in a single teaspoon. Soil is one of the most complex and diverse ecosystems on the planet, and it is one that is essential for human life through all the functions it provides: the breakdown of organic materials, food production, water purification, greenhouse gas reduction, and pollution cleanup, just to name a few.
By Holly Ober
Two UC Davis graduates have started a company incubated in the TEAM manufacturing facility at the UC Davis Department of Biomedical Engineering.
Arshia Firouzi and Gurkern Sufi met in 2011 as Freshmen living in Tercero Dormitories at UC Davis and quickly became friends. Arshia majored in Electrical Engineering and Gurkern in Biotechnology, and they worked with the mentorship of Professor Marc Facciotti to explore their shared interest in the intersection of electronics and biology. In 2015 they won a VentureWell grant for a research project, which they pursued in TEAM’s Molecular Prototyping and Bioinnovation Laboratory. By the end of their project, they had come up with an idea that grew into a company that could usher in a new era for laboratories all over the world.
By Pat Bailey
A UC Davis-led study of nursing mothers in The Gambia shows how environment changes breast milk content
In a newly published study, UC Davis researchers and their colleagues, paint the picture of an elegant web of cause-and-effect that connects climate, the breast milk of nursing moms, gut microbes and the health of breast fed infants.
The research is part of a long-running. cross-disciplinary project at UC Davis studying milk and its role in nutrition. For example, last year UC Davis scientists and colleagues at Washington University St. Louis worked with both children and animal models to show how milk compounds could alter gut microbe composition and affect health. UC Davis researchers also led a consortium to study the “milk genome,” the collection of all genes related to producing milk.
Where would we be without meiosis and recombination? For a start, none of us sexually reproducing organisms would be here, because that’s how sperm and eggs are made. And when meiosis doesn’t work properly, it can lead to infertility, miscarriage, birth defects and developmental disorders.
Neil Hunter’s laboratory at the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences is teasing out the complex details of how meiosis works. In a new paper published online Jan. 6 in the journal Science, Hunter’s group describes new key players in meiosis, proteins called SUMO and ubiquitin and molecular machines called proteasomes. Ubiquitin is already well-known as a small protein that “tags” other proteins to be destroyed by proteasomes (wood chippers for proteins). SUMO is a close relative of ubiquitin.
Full post: New Steps in the Meiosis Chromosome Dance
(809 words, 2 images, estimated 3:14 mins reading time)
By Ann Filmer
Plant scientists and wheat breeders now have a new tool to develop more nutritious and productive wheat varieties: A public online database of 10 million mutations in wheat genes. Scientists at UC Davis and three institutions in the UK created the database, which will allow scientists worldwide to study the function of every gene of wheat. The research will be reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week.
UC Davis Plant Sciences Professor, Jorge Dubcovsky is working to improve the yield and nutritional value of wheat, one of the world’s most important crops.
Today’s White House announcement of the National Microbiome Initiative will bring new funding and attention to better understand the billions of microbes that swarm around in and around us and probably play an important role in our health, food and environment. At UC Davis, many scientists are already exploring this hidden world. Here are a few of them.
Jonathan Eisen is one of the pioneers of studying microbe communities through genetic sequencing. His lab is involved in understanding the complete “Tree of Life,” and projects on microbial communities associated with buildings, as well as communities on different plants and animals, including people, dogs and cats. A prolific blogger, Eisen regularly calls out examples of excessive microbiome hype.
By Pat Bailey
The curtain cloaking how AIDS and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) impact the human digestive and immune systems has been drawn back a bit further, thanks to a team of researchers from UC Davis’ departments of Food Science and Technology and Medical Microbiology and Immunology.
The small intestine is extremely difficult to study because of its location in the body but plays a critical role in human health. Its inner lining offers both a portal for absorbing nutrients and a barrier against toxins or invasive microbes.
“Terrific,” “Amazing news,” “Excellent choice,” were some of the terms two UC Davis experts in DNA repair used to describe the award of the 2015 Nobel Prize for Chemistry to three pioneers of the field this morning. The recipients are: Tomas Lindal, Francis Crick Institute, London; Paul Modrich, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University; and Aziz Sancar of the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill.
“They discovered that DNA in your body, which suffers from millions of DNA damaging events from every day due to normal chemical processes, is repaired efficiently by remarkably complex and disparate sets of repair machineries and mechanisms,” said Stephen Kowalczykowski, distinguished professor of microbiology and molecular genetics in the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences.
By Pat Bailey
In the game of wheat genetics, Jorge Dubcovsky’s laboratory at UC Davis has hit a grand slam, unveiling for the fourth time in a dozen years a gene that governs wheat vernalization, the biological process requiring cold temperatures to trigger flower formation.
Identification of the newly characterized VRN-D4 gene and its three counterpart genes is crucial for understanding the vernalization process and developing improved varieties of wheat, which provides about one-fifth of the calories and proteins that we humans consume globally.
Fanconi anemia is a rare, inherited disorder that affects about one in 350,000 births. It affects the blood and bone marrow and many other organs, can cause physical abnormalities and vulnerability to cancer. Recently, the case of a child with serious Fanconi-like symptoms has helped researchers at The Rockefeller University in New York and UC Davis better understand the causes of the disease, and discover a new role for a protein already known to be involved in DNA repair and protection from cancer. The work was published recently in the journal Molecular Cell.
Full post: Fanconi anemia gene poisons DNA repair
(745 words, 1 image, estimated 2:59 mins reading time)