How antiviral from Hepatitis C could damage other viruses

A new virus-killing peptide springs from an unexpected source: another virus, Hepatitis C.

Now biomedical engineers at UC Davis and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore show how the HCV alpha-helical (AH) peptide can make holes in the types of membranes that surround viruses. The work is published Jan. 5 in Biophysical Journal.

HCV-AH is known to be active against a wide range of viruses including West Nile, dengue, measles and HIV.

The HCV-AH peptide appears to target an Achilles’ heel common to many viruses, most likely a property of the lipid coating or envelope, said study author Atul Parikh, professor of biomedical engineering at UC Davis. That means that it’s less likely that viruses can readily evolve to become resistant to the peptide.

Network of tubes plays a key role in plants’ immune defense

Chloroplasts, better known for taking care of photosynthesis in plant cells, play an unexpected role in responding to infections in plants, researchers at UC Davis and the University of Delaware have found.

Infection causes tubes called stromules (blue) to grow from chloroplasts (purple) to the nucleus of a plant cell (yellow) carrying signals that boost immune defenses.

Infection causes tubes called stromules (blue) to grow from chloroplasts (purple) to the nucleus of a plant cell (yellow) carrying signals that boost immune defenses.

When plant cells are infected with pathogens, networks of tiny tubes called stromules extend from the chloroplasts and make contact with the cell’s nucleus, the team discovered. The tubes likely deliver signals from the chloroplast to the nucleus that induce programmed cell death of infected cells and prepare other cells to resist infection. The work is published online June 25 in the journal Developmental Cell.

How to slow a flu epidemic: Stay home, watch it on TV

Encouraging people to stay home instead of going out, along with other “non-pharmaceutical interventions” such as handwashing and wearing facemasks, can limit the spread of influenza virus during an outbreak according to a new study published in the open access journal BMC Infectious Diseases.

The article by researchers at UC Davis, Arizona State University, Georgia State University and Yale University provides evidence that the novel A/H1N1 influenza outbreak that hit Mexico City in April 2009 could have been worse, but spread of the virus was reduced by people’s behavioral response of distancing themselves from each other.

Advances in electron microscopy reveal secrets of HIV and other viruses

UC Davis researchers are getting a new look at the workings of HIV and other viruses thanks to new techniques in electron microscopy developed on campus.

The envelope (or Env) protein of HIV is a key target for vaccine makers: it is a key component in RV144, an experimental vaccine that is so far the only candidate to show promise in clinical trials. Also called gp120, the Env protein associates with another protein called gp41 and three gp120/gp41 units associate to form the final trimeric structure. The gp120 trimer is the machine that allows HIV to enter and attack host cells.

New anthrax-killing virus from Africa is unusually large

From a zebra carcass on the plains of Namibia in Southern Africa, an international team of researchers has discovered a new, unusually large virus (or bacteriophage) that infects the bacterium that causes anthrax. The novel bacteriophage could eventually open up new ways to detect, treat or decontaminate the anthrax bacillus and its relatives that cause food poisoning. The work is published Jan. 27 in the journal PLOS One.