Livestock and Climate Change: Facts and Fiction

Dairy cows eat hay

Holstein cows eat lunch at the Dairy Cattle Facility at UC Davis. Credit: Gregory Urquiaga, UC Davis

By Frank Mitloehner

As the November 2015 Global Climate Change Conference COP21 concluded in Paris, 196 countries reached agreement on the reduction of fossil fuel use and emissions in the production and consumption of energy, even to the extent of potentially phasing out fossil fuels out entirely.

Both globally and in the U.S., energy production and use, as well as the transportation sectors, are the largest anthropogenic contributors of greenhouse gasses (GHG), which are believed to drive climate change. While there is scientific consensus regarding the relative importance of fossil fuel use, anti animal-agriculture advocates portray the idea that livestock is to blame for a lion’s share of the contributions to total GHG emissions.

West Coast Scientists Recommend Immediate Action Plan to Combat Ocean Acidification

By Kat Kerlin

Global carbon dioxide emissions are triggering permanent changes to ocean chemistry along the West Coast. Failure to act on this fundamental change in seawater chemistry, known as ocean acidification, is expected to have devastating ecological consequences for the West Coast in the decades to come, warns a multistate panel of scientists, including two from UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory.

Their report, issued this week, urges immediate action and outlines a regional strategy to combat the alarming global changes underway. Inaction now will reduce options and impose higher costs later, the report said.

Tide pools at the front line of ocean acidification

By Becky Oskin

Beloved by beach goers, tide pools are also important ecological zones that provide shelter and food for many plants and animals.

Marine life living in tide pools are vulnerable to rising acid levels in seawater, according to new research from UC Davis, the Carnegie Institution for Science and UC Santa Cruz published March 18 in the journal Scientific Reports.

UC Davis joins UC Water effort to improve state’s water security

By Kat Kerlin

It’s hard to manage what you don’t measure.

UC Davis is playing a major role in solving California’s biggest water woes by joining forces across the UC system. The UC Water Security and Sustainability Research Initiative aims to account for all of California’s water, better understand how and where it flows, and help demonstrate how water can be managed differently to allow for greater water security.

Refael Klein flies the Aggie flag at the South Pole

If you think it’s been a bit chilly in the Sacramento region this week, spare a thought for UC Davis alumnus Refael Klein, lieutenant junior grade in the Commissioned Officer Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. On a recent day temperatures climbed to 35 degrees below zero Fahrenheit at the South Pole, Klein’s home for the next year.

Aggie flag at South Pole

UC Davis alumn Refael Klein at the geographic South Pole, Nov. 2015. Klein will spend a year at the pole studying climate change.

“It’s been a big dream of mine to visit Antarctica,” said Klein in an interview before he left the U.S. “I feel very fortunate to have the opportunity.”

Innovation Institute kicks-off “uncommon collaboration” for food and health with workshop

By Kyeema Zerbe

The Innovation Institute for Food and Health (IIFH) at UC Davis is kicking off a uniquely open collaboration on solving critical challenges in food, agriculture and health with an open workshop Oct. 29 inviting participants from all disciplines to provide input on the institute’s strategic focus.

Food and nutrition insecurity remain serious issues for more than 50 developing countries, according to the 2015 Global Hunger Index. And even as many as 10 percent of populations in developed countries go hungry, including in the fertile lands of California’s Central Valley. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization reports that almost 800 million people worldwide are chronically undernourished. With the global population expected to reach nearly 10 billion by 2050, society faces an uncertain future that demands a coordinated response from all sectors to improve access to adequate nutrition.

Shale oil fracking, conventional crude drilling produce similar greenhouse gas emissions

By Kat Kerlin

It requires roughly the same level of greenhouse gas emissions to extract shale oil as it does to extract conventional crude oil, according to a pair of studies by UC Davis and Stanford University released this week by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory.

The research analyzed the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas and the Bakken play in North Dakota. These plays are shale formations with low permeability that must be hydraulically fractured to produce oil and gas.

The Eagle Ford Shale in Texas is one of the largest oil and gas producing regions in the country.

The Eagle Ford Shale in Texas is one of the largest oil and gas producing regions in the country.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide can change how coffee trees grow

Plants use nitrogen from the atmosphere in unexpected ways. writes Kat Kerlin

Trees need nitrogen to grow, and they would prefer to get it from the soil. But in a pinch, when soils are poor, they will look to the atmosphere as sort of a nitrogen “food pantry,” grabbing it from the sky, according to a UC Davis study. However, amid rising levels of carbon dioxide, that back-up source of nitrogen is harder for the trees to access, limiting their growth.

The study, published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports, helps explain why rising CO2 levels are not accompanied by a boom in tree growth, as scientists formerly expected.

UC Davis solution for better nitrogen climate modeling adopted by IPCC

By Kat Kerlin

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers who provide global climate models to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have publicly thanked UC Davis associate professor Ben Houlton and his colleagues for creating a new solution to more accurately forecast nitrogen’s effects on global warming.

In an opinion piece in Nature Climate Change, the authors discuss how they have modified their model equations so that they now provide realistic predictions  anchored in Houlton’s benchmarking technique, published in that journal in April.

Changing ocean affecting salmon biodiversity and survival

What happens at the Equator, doesn’t stay at the Equator. El Niño-associated changes in the ocean may be putting the biodiversity of two Northern Pacific salmon species risk, according to a UC Davis study.

Researchers tracked the survival of Chinook and coho salmon from hatcheries in North America between 1980 and 2006.

Before the 1990s, ocean survival rates of Chinook and coho salmon varied separately from each other. However, the researchers were surprised to find that survival rates of the two species have since become increasingly similar.