By Ann Filmer
Goals for carbon reduction from sequestration in soils set in the 2015 Paris Agreement are not feasible, according to an international team of climate scientists. Regardless of whether the U.S. remains part of the Paris climate accord, scientists at the University of California, Davis, are developing additional agricultural methods to offset increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, thereby reducing the potential for global warming.
Subsurface drip irrigation in a tomato field at UC Davis. This irrigation method saves water, reduces fertilizer use and reduces emissions of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Photo by Martin Burger, UC Davis.
By Becky Oskin
Chronicling Earth’s past temperature swings is a basic part of understanding climate change. One of the best records of past ocean temperatures can be found in the shells of marine creatures called foraminifera.
The foraminiferan Neogloboquadrina dutertrei forms a record of ocean conditions as it builds its shell. Photo by J. Fehrenbacher
Known as “forams” for short, these single-celled plankton build microscopic calcite shells. When forams die, their shells fall to the ocean floor and accumulate in sediments that provide a record of past climate. The surface-feeding plankton are natural thermometers because the chemical makeup of foram shells is linked to the environmental conditions they grow in. For example, the levels of magnesium in foram shells reflect the seawater temperature in which they lived.
Full post: Refining the Ocean’s Thermometer
(513 words, 2 images, estimated 2:03 mins reading time)
Jim Crutchfield wants to teach a machine to “see” in a new way, discovering patterns that evolve over time instead of recognizing patterns based on a stored template.
It sounds like an easy task – after all, any animal with basic vision can see a moving object, decide whether it is food or a threat and react accordingly, but what comes easily to a scallop is a challenge for the world’s biggest supercomputers.
CORI at Lawrence Berkeley Lab is one of the world’s fastest computers. It is named after Gerty Theresa Cori, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. (NERSC/LBL photo)
By Ann Filmer
Plant scientists and wheat breeders now have a new tool to develop more nutritious and productive wheat varieties: A public online database of 10 million mutations in wheat genes. Scientists at UC Davis and three institutions in the UK created the database, which will allow scientists worldwide to study the function of every gene of wheat. The research will be reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week.
UC Davis Plant Sciences Professor, Jorge Dubcovsky is working to improve the yield and nutritional value of wheat, one of the world’s most important crops.
By Becky Oskin
For the first time scientists can see how the shells of tiny marine organisms grow atom-by-atom, a new study reports. The advance provides new insights into the mechanisms of biomineralization and will improve our understanding of environmental change in Earth’s past.
Foraminifera are marine plankton with complex shells. The shells of dead forams in ocean sediments form a record of climate hundreds of millions of years into the past.
By Lorena Anderson, UC Merced
California’s coastal redwoods are one of the state’s most prominent icons, drawing more than 2 million visitors a year. Another prominent icon? Fog, winding its way across the coast and through the trees. Climate change may be impacting both of them.
Climate change may affect the fog that waters California’s iconic coastal redwoods.
While coastal redwoods typically get plenty of water during the winter, fog helps them get through the summer. But fog is on the decline. What that means for the coastal redwoods in currently unclear.
Under certain conditions, forests can grow in response to climate change
By Kat Kerlin
After a tip-off from nomadic herders, a team of scientists has confirmed reports of a forest expansion in eastern Tibet, a region dominated by ancient grasslands. The forest growth, unprecedented since 1760, is due to a combination of climatic changes: rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, increased water related to warming, and greater nutrient availability released by thawing permafrost.
New forests are encroaching on the alpine grasslands of Tibet. (Photo: Lucas Silva)
Full post: Climate Change Spurs Forest Growth in Tibet
(368 words, 1 image, estimated 1:28 mins reading time)
The world’s coral reefs are both stunningly beautiful and vital to ocean health, hosting a huge diversity of fish and marine life. And they are, as they always have been, under pressure from periodic natural disasters. However, a coral reef’s ability to recover from unavoidable and often unpredictable natural disasters, like hurricanes and tsunamis, may depend on human activities including fishing and pollution. UC Davis marine biologist Mike Gil is one of the scientists working to understand how reefs recover from natural disturbances in the presence of unnatural, man-made stressors.
Holstein cows eat lunch at the Dairy Cattle Facility at UC Davis. Credit: Gregory Urquiaga, UC Davis
By Frank Mitloehner
As the November 2015 Global Climate Change Conference COP21 concluded in Paris, 196 countries reached agreement on the reduction of fossil fuel use and emissions in the production and consumption of energy, even to the extent of potentially phasing out fossil fuels out entirely.
By Kat Kerlin
Global carbon dioxide emissions are triggering permanent changes to ocean chemistry along the West Coast. Failure to act on this fundamental change in seawater chemistry, known as ocean acidification, is expected to have devastating ecological consequences for the West Coast in the decades to come, warns a multistate panel of scientists, including two from UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory.
Their report, issued this week, urges immediate action and outlines a regional strategy to combat the alarming global changes underway. Inaction now will reduce options and impose higher costs later, the report said.