Vasectomy Alternative Gets Boost at California Primate Center

By Carlos Villatoro

The successful application of an alternative male contraceptive in rhesus macaque monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center is paving  the way for human clinical trials.

For over a century, men who did not want to father a child had only one permament option for contraception. But according to the results of a study conducted at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC), there could be an alternative to a vasectomy that is as efficient and has the potential to be easily and successfully reversible.

Tests with rhesus monkeys show that Vasalgel shows potential as an alternative to vasectomy. (K. West, UC Davis)

Tests with rhesus monkeys show that Vasalgel shows potential as an alternative to vasectomy. (K. West, UC Davis)

Changes In Breast Milk Sugars Impact Babies’ Health And Growth

By Pat Bailey

A UC Davis-led study of nursing mothers in The Gambia shows how environment changes breast milk content

In a newly published study, UC Davis researchers and their colleagues, paint the picture of an elegant web of  cause-and-effect that connects climate, the breast milk of nursing moms, gut microbes and the health of breast fed infants.

The research is part of a long-running. cross-disciplinary project at UC Davis studying milk and its role in nutrition. For example, last year UC Davis scientists and colleagues at Washington University St. Louis worked with both children and animal models to show how milk compounds could alter gut microbe composition and affect health. UC Davis researchers also led a consortium to study the “milk genome,” the collection of all genes related to producing milk.

Multivitamins And Early Nurturing Boost Child Development

By Pat Bailey

For all the moms who obediently popped their prenatal vitamins during pregnancy while  wondering if the supplements could actually benefit their babies, an international research group has the answer, and it’s a resounding “yes.”

In fact, in a recent study the researchers discovered children whose mothers took multi-micronutrient supplements during pregnancy were advanced in cognitive abilities by as much as one full year of schooling by age 9-12 years.

The study, conducted in Indonesia and published Jan. 16 in the journal Lancet Global Health, also indicated that other essential ingredients in the recipe for smarter kids include early-life nurturing, happy moms, and educated parents.

Experts In Human, Horse Stem Cells Join World Stem Cell Summit

Event Includes Horse Therapies For First Time

By Pat Bailey

Four UC Davis researchers with expertise in the application of stem cell science for therapies in human or veterinary medicine are slated to speak during the World Stem Cell Summit in Palm Beach, Florida, Dec. 6-9.

UC Davis researchers are exploring stem cell technology to treat both horses and humans. Photo by Karin Higgins/UC Davis.

UC Davis researchers are exploring stem cell technology to treat both horses and humans. Photo by Karin Higgins/UC Davis.

This will be the 12th consecutive year that the summit has brought together scientists, physicians and veterinarians, industry representatives and patient advocates from around the world to share medical breakthroughs in stem cell research, also known as regenerative medicine.

UC Davis scientists explore the microbiome

Today’s White House announcement of the National Microbiome Initiative will bring new funding and attention to better understand the billions of microbes that swarm around in and around us and probably play an important role in our health, food and environment. At UC Davis, many scientists are already exploring this hidden world. Here are a few of them.

Jonathan Eisen is one of the pioneers of studying microbe communities through genetic sequencing. His lab is involved in understanding the complete “Tree of Life,” and projects on microbial communities associated with buildings, as well as communities on different plants and animals, including people, dogs and cats. A prolific blogger, Eisen regularly calls out examples of excessive microbiome hype.

How antibiotics open door to “bad” gut bacteria: more oxygen

By Carole Gan

Antibiotics are essential for fighting bacterial infection, but they can also make the body more prone to infection and diarrhea. Exactly how do antibiotics foster growth of disease-causing microbes – and how can resident “good” microbes in the gut protect against pathogens, such as Salmonella?

Now research led by Andreas Bäumler, professor of medical immunology and microbiology at UC Davis Health System, has identified the chain of events that occur within the gut lumen of mice after antibiotic treatment that allow “bad” bugs to flourish.

Microbe studies zoom in on effects of HIV in the gut

By Pat Bailey

The curtain cloaking how AIDS and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) impact the human digestive and immune systems has been drawn back a bit further, thanks to a team of researchers from UC Davis’ departments of Food Science and Technology and Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

The small intestine­ is extremely difficult to study because of its location in the body but plays a critical role in human health. Its inner lining offers both a portal for absorbing nutrients and a barrier against toxins or invasive microbes.

Discovery links Brucella infection, inflammation, chronic diseases

By Carole Gan

Researchers at UC Davis have discovered an unexpected link between how the immune system sounds an alarm when its cells are taken over by pathogens during an infection and how an inflammatory response is triggered.

The finding of this novel link, published in the journal Nature on March 23, is important because it helps researchers understand how a cell senses bacterial or viral infection, and how these pathways are linked to inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and atherosclerosis.

UC Davis entomologists on the trail of virus-carrying mosquito

Aedes aegypti, a daytime-biting mosquito that predominantly feeds on humans, has spread to at least seven counties since June 2013, according to UC Davis medical entomologist Anthony Cornel of the UC Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Parlier, and the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology.

Aedes aegypti carries yellow fever, Zika and other viruses. (CDC photo)

Aedes aegypti carries yellow fever, Zika and other viruses. (CDC photo)

“It’s an issue of great concern, especially as current control methods do not appear to be working well,” said Cornel, who does research on the mosquito in Clovis, Fresno County, where it was discovered in June 2013. Simultaneously, the insect was found in the cities of Madera and San Mateo.

Hepatitis virus-like particles as potential cancer treatment

UC Davis researchers have developed a way to use the empty shell of a Hepatitis E virus to carry vaccines or drugs into the body. The technique has been tested in rodents as a way to target breast cancer, and is available for commercial licensing through UC Davis Office of Research.

Hepatitis E virus is feco-orally transmitted, so it can survive passing through the digestive system, said Marie Stark, a graduate student working with Professor Holland Cheng in the UC Davis Department of Molecular and Cell Biology.