By Alex Russell
For poor and subsistence farmers in developing countries, a severe drought, flood or other catastrophe can cost them everything. In response to these kinds of climate-related risks, farmers often choose to minimize their exposure to loss. They might avoid higher-cost improved seeds that promise bigger harvests or riskier but profitable cash crops. Both of these strategies can keep them poor.
Maize farmers in Tanzania. Agricultural index insurance could help small farmers like these invest in higher-value crops and increase their income.
By Lisa Howard
During the early days of the Great Depression, when many Americans were desperate to find jobs, state and local officials in the United States began forcibly repatriating Mexicans, including American citizens of Mexican descent, to Mexico. Between 1929 and 1935, hundreds of thousands of Mexicans left the United States. Some estimates put the number at 500,000 to over a million.
Mexicans picking cantaloupes in Imperial Valley, California, May 1937. Although the intent of Mexican repatriation was to create more jobs for Americans, a UC Davis study shows most native-born workers didn’t take the jobs left behind by Mexican laborers. (Credit: Dorothea Lange, Farm Security Administration, Library of Congress)
By Alex Russell
At one time, rice farmers in Haiti could meet demand for all Haitians. Today, national rice production accounts for less than one-fifth of consumption. Increasing the amount of rice farmers can grow could be key to reducing poverty and improving food security in Haiti, especially among the 1.6 million people who live in the Artibonite Valley, the largest rice-producing region in the nation.
Rice farmers in Haiti’s Artibonite Valley could boost yield with new practices, but at a cost, say UC Davis researchers.
A partnership that helps residents of underserved communities in California report environmental hazards to enforcement agencies should be enhanced and expanded, a University of California, Davis, report says.
The UC Davis Center for Regional Change released the report on the Identifying Violations Affecting Neighborhoods (IVAN) program July 13 in Sacramento. The “neighborhood watch” for environmental hazards has been used in the Wilmington area of Los Angeles, the Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, Kern County, Fresno County and Kings County.
Video streams from the Jan. 14 symposium on innovation in food, agriculture and health are now available online. The morning session can be found here and the afternoon, here.
The complete program is available here.
The morning session included a keynote address by Prof. Elizabeth Blackburn of UCSF and a panel discussion on “Scientific discovery and innovation: What can the future look like at the nexus of food, agriculture and health?”
The afternoon included a presentation on the African Orphan Crops Consortium by Howard Yana Shapiro and Allen Van Deynze, and panel discussions on solving agriculture’s greatest challenges and the role of venture capital in innovation.
By Colin Carter
Recently I joined a large delegation from UC Davis, led by Chancellor Linda P.B. Katehi, at the 80th anniversary celebration of China’s Northwest Agricultural and Forestry University in Shaanxi province, including an international forum on the development of western China cosponsored by UC Davis. For all of us, the forum was a powerful reminder that western China is key to the future prosperity of that nation — much like California, which rose from obscurity to become the richest and most agriculturally productive state in the U.S.
As children, we learn to wait in line, take our turn and share. As adults, we usually try to live by these basic rules. For today’s plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) drivers, however, the rules and norms for mundane chores such as recharging the car are not yet clear.
Plugging in a car is a new behavior that occurs in a new social setting. Forget the gas station: PEV owners depend on home chargers and away-from-home charging stations to fuel their cars. At home, who plugs in the car and when are easily decided. But away from home, UC Davis researchers say, PEV drivers are unsure of the rules and want charging guidelines that everyone understands and uses in order to feel confident and comfortable.
It’s been argued that American farms need cheap imported labor to keep food prices low. But in an online debate at the New York Times, UC Davis agricultural economist Philip Martin makes the case that increasing farmworkers’ wages by 40 percent would have an almost negligible effect on your grocery bill.
If farm wages rose 40 percent, and this wage increase were passed on to consumers, average spending on fresh fruits and vegetables would rise about $15 a year, the cost of two movie tickets. However, for a typical seasonal farm worker, a 40 percent wage increase could raise earnings from $10,000 for 1,000 hours of work to $14,000 — lifting the wage above the federal poverty line.
Following a visit to the editorial board of the Bakersfield Californian by UC Davis Chancellor Linda Katehi and Neal Van Alfen, dean of the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, the Californian’s editorial page editor Robert Price points out that cuts to higher education do not just higher tuition for students. They also threaten the competitiveness of one of the state’s key industries, agriculture.
Though many jobs in agriculture are low-paying, many others pay quite well, and that earned wealth is a significant economic driver. That wealth, derived from global competitiveness, rides on the back of research — research carried out by institutions like UC Davis. From harvesting automation to advances in processing, research has helped the Central Valley stay ahead of the global competitive curve, albeit barely.
A new Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta is coming, one way or another, write UC Davis water experts Jay Lund, Peter Moyle, Jeff Mount and Richard Howitt, with Ellen Hanak from the Public Policy Institute of California in an opinion article in last weekend’s Sacramento Bee. (Scroll down the page for the article; it’s prefaced by a column by Daniel Weintraub).
The new Delta will have more open and sometimes saltier water in its central and western portions, with diverse, wildlife-friendly farmland nearby. The estuarine ecosystem will likely be healthier. And regions relying on Delta exports may receive somewhat reduced, but cleaner and more stable water supplies. This transition will cause disruptions, but in the long term it can create a healthier and more stable economy for the Delta region, with more recreation and an attractive, productive agricultural landscape.