Egghead is a blog about research by, with or related to UC Davis. Comments on posts are welcome, as are tips and suggestions for posts. General feedback may be sent to Andy Fell. This blog is created and maintained by UC Davis University Communications, and mostly edited by Andy Fell.
Congratulations to Professor Charan Ranganath of the UC Davis Center for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology on his selection as a National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellow by the U.S. Department of Defense. The five-year, $2.6 million fellowship will support new work on learning and memory in Ranganath’s Dynamic Memory Laboratory at UC Davis.
Charan Ranganath is exploring the basis of memory.
The new project aims to connect neural oscillations, which are currently poorly understood, with activity in the cortex and hippocampus, brain regions that are known to be involved in forming and retrieving memories.
The studies could lead to better ways to assess memory function, methods to boost learning (for example in training situations), and to better rehabilitation of soldiers with brain injuries. The work could also contribute to development of brain-computer interfaces.
“NSSEFF grants are highly competitive, attracting the next generation of outstanding scientists and engineers to some of our most challenging scientific issues and opportunities,” said Dr. Robin Staffin, Director for Basic Research for the Department of Defense, in a news release. “The program provides grants to top-tier researchers from U.S. universities to conduct long-term, unclassified, basic research of strategic importance to the Department of Defense.”
Domestic tomatoes (left) and three wild relatives. S. pennellii is on the far right.
The genome of Solanum pennellii, a wild relative of the domestic tomato, has been published by an international group of researchers including the labs headed by Professors Neelima Sinha and Julin Maloof at the UC Davis Department of Plant Biology. The new genome information may help breeders produce tastier, more stress-tolerant tomatoes.
The work, published July 27 in the journal Nature Genetics, was lead by Björn Usadel and colleagues at Aachen University in Germany. The UC Davis labs carried out work on the transcriptome of S. pennellii — the RNA molecules that are transcribed from DNA and then translated into proteins — messages written from DNA and taken to other parts of the cell to tell it what to do. Analyzing the RNA transcriptome shows which genes are active under different circumstances. The UC Davis team published a paper last year comparing the RNA transcripts of domestic tomato and three wild relatives, including S. pennellii.
S. pennellii is inedible, but it can be interbred with domestic tomatoes to introduce useful traits, such as drought resistance. Using the new genome data, the researchers found genes related to dehydration resistance, fruit development and fruit ripening. They also found genes that contribute to volatile compounds related to fruit scent and flavor.
The UC Davis portion of the work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
A new pressure cell invented by UC Davis researchers makes it possible to simulate chemical reactions deep in the Earth’s crust. The cell allows researchers to perform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on as little as 10 microliters of liquid at pressures up to 20 kiloBar.
“NMR is our window into the chemical world,” said Brent Pautler, a postdoctoral researcher in chemistry at UC Davis and first author on the paper published July 2 in the online edition of the journal Angewandte Chemie. “It lets us see chemical reactions as they are happening.”
The new device allows researchers for the first time to study chemical reactions in liquid water under pressure, without it freezing into a solid.
“We were able to get to the point where we could no longer ignore the compressibility of the water molecules,” Pautler said. “This is the first time this has ever been reported.”
Geochemists want to know what kind of chemistry is happening deep in the Earth’s crust, beyond the reach of boreholes. These chemical reactions could affect water and minerals that eventually migrate to the surface, or the behavior of carbon cycling between the Earth’s depths and the surface.
“Aqueous fluids deep in the Earth are the great unknown for geochemists,” said Chris Colla, a graduate student in Earth & Physical Sciences at UC Davis and co-author on the paper. “By doing NMR we can get an inside view of what is occurring deep in the Earth’s crust.”
Video: Mimicking chemical reactions in the Earth’s crust
For example, Pautler, Colla and colleagues have already looked at calcium ions in solution. Dissolved calcium ions can be surrounded by four, six or eight water molecules. High pressure forces dissolved calcium into an eight-water state, they found.
The high-pressure measurements could also shed light on chemical processes involved in hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” and the behavior of buried nuclear waste over long periods of time. Fracking is the process of extracting oil and gas by injecting liquids under high pressure into rocks.
The high-pressure NMR cell was built in the machine shop at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory with the help of Peter Klavins, research specialist in the Department of Physics, and Steve Harley, a former UC Davis graduate student now at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Other coauthors on the paper are, at UC Davis: Prof. William Casey and Rene Johnson, Department of Chemistry; Jeffrey Walton, NMR Facility; André Ohlin, at Monash University, Australia and Dimitri Sverjensky at Johns Hopkins University and the Carnegie Institution of New York. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Now Honda is making detailed plans and information about fixtures and fittings in the energy-efficient home available for anyone to download. In a blog post, Honda project manager Michael Koenig writes:
In the three months following our launch, the response to Honda Smart Home has been truly amazing. We’ve hosted over a thousand visitors in Davis including architects, builders, researchers, academics, media, policymakers and enthusiastic members of the public. And we’ve received inquiries and proposals from businesses all across the world looking to get involved in green building.
Many of the people and companies we’ve met with wanted to know how they could incorporate what we’ve demonstrated into their own projects, or build upon what we’ve learned in their own research. We want nothing more than to facilitate this effort, so today, we’re releasing a batch of files the get the process rolling.
Simply go to hondasmarthome.com and click on the “downloads” tab at the top of the page to download the plans and files.
Saddened to hear of the death on Saturday of Peter Marler, a pioneer of research on birdsong and animal communication and professor emeritus at the UC Davis Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior and Center for Neuroscience.
According to the Sacramento Bee, Marler, who was in poor health, had to be evacuated from his home in Winters, CA early on July 5 due to a wildfire. He died later the same day.
Marler had a lifelong interest in science and biology, starting his own natural history club as a school boy in England. He earned two doctoral degrees, in botany and in zoology, and worked at Cambridge University where he began his work studying birdsong. In 1957 he emigrated to the U.S.. He was at UC Berkeley from 1957 to 1966 then moved to Rockefeller University, where he worked on both bird and primate communication.
Among Marler’s many achievements, he was the first to show that birds learn songs from other birds during a crucial phase of development. He also worked with Jane Goodall to study communication in chimpanzees, and studied how monkeys use different alarm calls in different situations.
For a full scientific biography in his own words, look here.
Small and fast-growing, Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used as the “lab mouse” of plant biology. The plant grows in Europe from Spain to Scandinavia and because Arabidopsis is so well-studied, there is a reference collection of seeds derived from wild stocks across its native range. Originally collected from 20 to 50 years ago, these plants have since been maintained under controlled conditions in the seed bank.
Johanna Schmitt, formerly at Brown University and now a distinguished professor in the UC Davis Department of Evolution and Ecology, and colleagues took banked seed samples originally from Spain, England, Germany and Finland and raised all the plants in gardens in all four locations.
Arabidopsis thaliana (Source: Wikipedia)
“The southern imports do better across the range than locals,” Schmitt said.
“This shows that the adaptive optimum has moved really fast.”
Seed stocks banked decades ago may no longer be the best for their locations of origin, she said, although they still may be critical for preserving genetic diversity, especially from warmer parts of the species range that may facilitate adaptation to future climates.
Whether wild Arabidopsis can evolve fast enough to thrive in warming conditions, or southern varieties move north fast enough to replace northern strains, remains an open question, Schmitt said.
Arabidopsis is a fast-growing, short-lived species. For forest managers, there is another question: can trees that sprouted 30 or 40 years ago adapt in place to a rapidly changing climate?
“This is a concern for foresters — trees live a long time, but will they die if the climate rug is pulled out from under them?” Schmitt said.
Coauthors on the study are Amity Wilczek, Martha Cooper and Tonia Korves, all at Brown University. The study was supported by the National Science Foundation.
Increased malnutrition and loss of life — due to declining levels of dietary zinc, iron, and protein in important food crops — will occur around the world as elevated atmospheric CO2 climbs to levels that are anticipated by 2050, reports an international team led by researchers at Harvard University and including UC Davis plant scientist Arnold Bloom. The study appeared online May 7 in the journalNature.
Confirmation of this link between rising CO2 and declining crop nutrient content is particularly sobering for developing nations, where an estimated two billion people already suffer from zinc and iron deficiencies.
“This study indicates that the reduction of these nutrients in important grain and legume crops is one of the most significant health threats that has ever been shown to be associated with climate change,” Bloom said.
The researchers analyzed data from 41 cultivated varieties of grains and legumes grown in seven locations in Japan, Australia and the United States. The test crops were grown in open fields, rather than in greenhouses or growth chambers. In these experimental fields, CO2 levels were monitored and pure CO2 added, using a technology called “free air carbon dioxide enrichment.” This process maintained the CO2 levels in the range of 546-586 parts per million across all seven sites. Today CO2 levels are normally around 400 parts per million.
At harvest, the researchers tested the nutrient concentration of the edible portions of wheat and rice, maize and sorghum, and soybeans and field peas. The results showed significant decreases in the concentrations of zinc, iron and protein in wheat grains grown at the test sites — 9.3 percent, 5.1 percent and 6.3 percent respectively — compared to wheat grown at naturally occurring CO2 levels. In the experimental legume plots, zinc and iron also decreased significantly but protein did not.
Earlier this year, Bloom and another team of researchers demonstrated that elevated levels of carbon dioxide inhibit plants’ assimilation of nitrate into proteins. Those findings, published in the journal Nature Climate Change in April, also provide evidence that the nutritional quality of food crops is at risk as climate change intensifies.
Announcement of the award, which will be presented to Van Eenennaam on Oct. 15 along with the World Food Prize Symposium in Iowa, was made today at the World Bank in Washington, D.C..
Established in 1986 and named after Nobel laureate Norman Borlaug, the award is presented to a food or agricultural scientist who is actively engaged in research; has made significant contributions to science; and communicates the importance of food and agricultural science to the public, policymakers and the news media
Van Eenennaam’s research and extension program in UC Davis’ Department of Animal Science is focused on developing science-based educational materials about the uses of animal genomics and biotechnology in livestock production systems.
She has served on advisory committees in the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to provide expert counsel on animal biotechnology.
Van Eenennaam is a passionate advocate for science and frequently speaks about agricultural technology to the public and policymakers, both nationally and internationally. She frequently provides science-based commentary to the media on sometimes-controversial topics, including genetic engineering and cloning. She also works to increase public understanding of agricultural biotechnology, using a variety of media, including YouTube videos.
Aquatic algae can sense an unexpectedly wide range of color, allowing them to sense and adapt to changing light conditions in lakes and oceans. The study by researchers at UC Davis was published earlier this year in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Phytochromes are the eyes of a plant, allowing it to detect changes in the color, intensity, and quality of light so that the plant can react and adapt. “They control all aspects of a plant’s life,” said Professor Clark Lagarias, senior author on the study. Typically about 20 percent of a plant’s genes are regulated by phytochromes, he said. Phytochromes use bilin pigments that are structurally related to chlorophyll, the molecule that plants use to harvest light and use it to turn carbon dioxide and water into food.
Freshwater-dwelling algae like these are among those able to sense a surprisingly wide spectrum of light.
Lagarias’ laboratory in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at UC Davis studies these phytochromes and their properties. Phytochromes from land plants, Lagarias said, respond to red light — plants absorb red and reflect green light, which is why they look green. Red light does not penetrate far into water, and some marine and shore-dwelling algae lack phytochrome genes. But others do not, so Lagarias and colleagues looked at the properties of phytochromes from a variety of algae. They found that phytochromes from algae, unlike those of land plants, are able to perceive light across the visible spectrum — blue, green, yellow, orange, red and far-red.
Cyanophora paradoxa, one of the algae with newly discovered phytochromes.
This broad spectral coverage likely helps algae make use of whatever light they can in the ocean, Lagarias said — whether adjusting their light-harvesting chemistry for changing conditions, or rising and sinking in the water column as light levels at the surface change. Because different colors of light penetrate to different depths in water, algae face challenges in light harvesting that land plants do not. This work from the Lagarias lab shows one way that algae can rise to the occasion.
Phytochromes themselves have a long evolutionary history and likely arose from the interaction between oxygen and bilins, pigment molecules closely tied to chlorophyll and the oxygen-carrying heme pigment in hemoglobin, Lagarias said. The ancestral form appears to be sensitive to red light, similar to phytochromes of modern land plants. But between the origin and today, phytochromes went through a stage of massive diversity when they could detect a much wider range of wavelengths.
The broad color palette of algal bilin-based light sensors found in nature.
“It’s a molecule that has been there and back again,” Lagarias said.
The discoveries help researchers better understand the role of light and response to light in shaping ecology, as well as a model for how living cells react to light. They could also help in breeding of aquatic crops that could take advantage of different light conditions.
Coauthors on the paper are: at UC Davis, Nathan Rockwell, Deqiang Duanmu, and Shelley Martin; Alexandra Worden and Charles Bachy at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and Canadian Institute for Advanced Research; Dana Price and Debashish Bhattacharya, Rutgers University. The work was supported by multiple agencies including the NIH, NSF, US Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, the Packard Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Clark Lagarias talks about phytochromes, algae and light detection
Begun in 1996, KLEE involves fencing off areas of savanna at Kenya’s Mpala Research Station to exclude large wild animals including elephants, giraffe and zebra, and/or grazing cattle. The experiment has given important insights into the effects of cattle and wild animals on each other and on rangeland ecology.
A zebra tests the fence at the Kenya Longterm Exclosure Experiment. Credit: Duncan Kimuyu
In the current study, the researchers found that when large animals such as elephants, giraffe and zebra were excluded from an area with electric fencing, the rodent population doubled. The rodents carry fleas, and tests on the fleas showed significant numbers of bacteria that cause Bartonellosis, a disease that can damage the heart, spleen and liver and cause memory loss in humans.
“We were able to demonstrate that declines in large wildlife can cause an increase in the risk for diseases that are spread between animals and humans,” said Hillary Young, in a news release. “This spike in disease risk results from explosions in the number of rodents that benefit from the removal of the larger animals.”
Without large mammals, mice like these multiply rapidly. And so do their fleas and flea-borne diseases. Credit: Hillary Young/UCSB.
Rodent-borne disease outbreaks are common in the study area. Declines in large wildlife have been linked to increases in small animals such as rodents elsewhere in the world, and may also be having an effect on rodent-borne disease.
Why does a decline in large animals like elephants and zebra affect rodents? The loss of large animals may mean more food and shelter for small ones. Small animals generally interact more closely with humans than large ones, Young noted.
“Elephants are an irreplaceable part of our global biodiversity portfolio,” Young said, “but they also appear to be circuitously protecting us from disease.”
Other authors on the study are: Douglas J. McCauley, UC Santa Barbara; Rodolfo Dirzo of Stanford University; Kristofer M. Helgen of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution; Sarah A. Billeter, Michael Y. Kosoy and Lynn M. Osikowicz of the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Daniel J Salkeld of Colorado State University, Fort Collins, and the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford University; and Katharina Dittmar of the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.
KLEE is a collaboration with the University of Nairobi, the National Museums of Kenya and the Kenya Wildlife service. The work was by the National Science Foundation, the James Smithson Fund of the Smithsonian Institution, the National Geographic
Society, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, the African Elephant Program of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Woods Institute for the Environment, and the Smithsonian Institution Women’s Committee.