Egghead is a blog about research by, with or related to UC Davis. Comments on posts are welcome, as are tips and suggestions for posts. General feedback may be sent to Andy Fell. This blog is created and maintained by UC Davis University Communications, and mostly edited by Andy Fell.
UC Davis researchers have developed a way to use the empty shell of a Hepatitis E virus to carry vaccines or drugs into the body. The technique has been tested in rodents as a way to target breast cancer, and is available for commercial licensing through UC Davis Office of Research.
Hepatitis E virus is feco-orally transmitted, so it can survive passing through the digestive system, said Marie Stark, a graduate student working with Professor Holland Cheng in the UC Davis Department of Molecular and Cell Biology.
Some of the world’s leading experts in how DNA is protected and repaired from damage will meet at UC Davis Feb. 12-13 for a symposium in honor of Stephen Kowalczykowski, distinguished professor of microbiology and molecular genetics at the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences. Registration information is available here.
“Genome maintenance” is essential to life, said Frederic Chedin, Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology, who is co-organizer of the symposium with Professors Wolf-Dietrich Heyer and Neil Hunter, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. Every second of the day, our DNA sustains damage for example from chemicals, radiation or just natural processes inside the cell. Breaks and lesions in DNA can lead to cancer, disease and developmental defects. Living things, from bacteria to plants to people, have evolved a fundamentally similar set of tools and processes that constantly defend and repair DNA.
By Betsy Towner Levine
A UC Davis Evolution and Ecology team has discovered that cichlid fishes in Africa’s Lake Victoria have suffered a unique and unexpected effect of evolutionary adaptation: mass extinction.
While a graduate student in Interim Dean Peter Wainwright’s lab, Ph.D. student Matthew McGee studied the die-off of cichlid species in Lake Victoria that occurred after Nile perch were introduced into the lake in the 1950s.
Since then the perch, Lates niloticus, have decimated the lake’s fish-eating cichlids, once the most species-rich group of cichlids in Lake Victoria. The native fish have essentially been removed and replaced by the invader.
Keith Baar’s laboratory in the Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior is beginning a collaboration on inherited muscle disease with at team at the University of Finis Terrae in Santiago, Chile supported by an anonymous donation to the Chilean university.
The project will focus on disorders related to desmin, a protein within muscle that transmits force, said Baar, associate professor in the College of Biological Sciences.
Keith Baar studies how muscle and connective tissue grow and function.
Muscles that lack desmin due to a genetic defect are unable to transmit force and as a result get injured more easily and over time get more connective tissue, he said.
A new virus-killing peptide springs from an unexpected source: another virus, Hepatitis C.
Now biomedical engineers at UC Davis and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore show how the HCV alpha-helical (AH) peptide can make holes in the types of membranes that surround viruses. The work is published Jan. 5 in Biophysical Journal.
HCV-AH is known to be active against a wide range of viruses including West Nile, dengue, measles and HIV.
The HCV-AH peptide appears to target an Achilles’ heel common to many viruses, most likely a property of the lipid coating or envelope, said study author Atul Parikh, professor of biomedical engineering at UC Davis. That means that it’s less likely that viruses can readily evolve to become resistant to the peptide.
By Kat Kerlin
It’s hard to manage what you don’t measure.
UC Davis is playing a major role in solving California’s biggest water woes by joining forces across the UC system. The UC Water Security and Sustainability Research Initiative aims to account for all of California’s water, better understand how and where it flows, and help demonstrate how water can be managed differently to allow for greater water security.
By Pat Bailey
As 2015 draws to a close, a team of UC Davis undergraduates can look back with pride and a sigh of relief on one of the most grueling but rewarding experiences of their college career.
Students Gabriel Freund, Muntaha Samad, Andrew Shepherd, Logan Vinson and Joanne Wu, were selected last spring as members of UC Davis’ 2015 iGEM (International Genetically Engineered Machines) team. They were joined by Andrew Michelmore, who is from Davis but attends Santa Clara University.
Gabriel Freund in the lab
Contributed by the LUX Collaboration
The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive dark matter detector in the world. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved its sensitivity.
Researchers with LUX are looking for WIMPs, weakly interacting massive particles, which are among the leading candidates for dark matter.
By AJ Cheline
A team of researchers from the University of California, Davis and the University of Washington have demonstrated that the conductance of DNA can be modulated by controlling its structure, thus opening up the possibility of DNA’s future use as an electromechanical switch for nanoscale computing. Although DNA is commonly known for its biological role as the molecule of life, it has recently garnered significant interest for use as a nanoscale material for a wide-variety of applications.
By Becky Oskin
College students in the STEM fields could see sizable savings thanks to a $600,000 grant awarded to an open source textbook project developed at the University of California, Davis.
The ChemWiki project recently received $600,000 from the National Science Foundation to support further expansion of its open source textbooks into fields including statistics, math, geology, physics, biology and solar energy.
Digital course materials are steadily climbing in use in response to textbook cost concerns, according to an annual survey released in July by the National Association of College Stores. In August, the University of Maryland announced plans to completely eliminate print textbooks this academic year.