Homologous Recombination Can Cause More Breaks As It Fixes Them
The traditional view of cancer is that a cell has to sustain a series of hits to its DNA before its defenses break down enough for it to turn cancerous. But cancer researchers have also found that cells can experience very rapid and widespread DNA damage that could quickly lead to cancer or developmental defects.
Now researchers at the University of California, Davis, have found that these complex chromosomal rearrangements can be triggered in a single event when a process used to repair DNA breaks, homologous recombination, goes wrong. The work is published Aug. 10 in the journal Cell.
By Kathy Keatley Garvey
Researchers in Professor Bruce Hammock’s laboratory at UC Davis are studying mechanisms involved in blocking angiogenesis — the formation of new blood vessels. The findings may lead to new methods for preventing cancer growth and targeting other diseases, the researchers report.
Postdoc Amy Rand is studying how certain fats can affect growth of blood vessels in tumors.
A recently-published study from Hammock’s lab describes a novel lipid-signaling molecule that can change fundamental biological processes involved in human health and disease. It builds on landmark research by the Judah Folkman laboratory of Harvard Medical School, which earlier showed that cutting off blood vessels that feed a cancerous tumor could stop its growth.
The UC Davis-based EXPLORER consortium, which aims to build a revolutionary total-body PET (positron emission tomography) scanner, has announced the selection of two industry partners to help build the prototype device. They are United Imaging Healthcare America, a North American subsidiary of Shanghai United Imaging Healthcare, and SensL Technologies of Cork, Ireland.
Positron emission tomography, or PET, scanning uses short-lived radioactive tracers to show how organs and tissues are functioning in the body, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans mostly show anatomy. PET scans are widely used to diagnose and track a variety of illnesses, including cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
Researchers lead by Michael DeGregorio and Greg Wurz at the UC Davis Cancer Center are beginning a study of a vaccine against breast cancer. Stimuvax, developed by Merck, targets MUC1, a molecule found in 90 percent of breast cancers. Working with lab mice, the researchers will test whether the vaccine can slow or prevent the growth of cancers when used in combination with standard hormone-blocking therapies.
To test the vaccine, the researchers will use mice bred to express the human MUC1 gene and a gene that causes spontaneous breast cancer.