$1.6M from NSF to Study Water, Land Use in Disadvantaged Communities

By Kat Kerlin

The National Science Foundation has awarded $1.6M to the University of California, Davis to analyze the complex relationships between surface water and groundwater supply, agricultural land use and the economic wellbeing of rural, disadvantaged communities.

The project is led by principal investigator Helen Dahlke, an associate professor in the UC Davis Department of Land, Air and Water Resources. The team will develop models to help guide decision-making regarding water management and land use in the state.

Helen Dahlke in field

Helen Dahlke studies how groundwater is used and replenished in California. (Tiffany Kocis/UC Davis)

Floods, Floodplains and Green Infrastructure in California’s Future

by Peter Moyle, Jeff Opperman, Amber Manfree, Eric Larson, and Joan Florshiem

The flooding in Houston is a reminder of the great damages that floods can cause when the defenses of an urban area are overwhelmed.  It is hard to imagine a flood system that could have effectively contained the historic amount of rain that fell on the region—several feet in just a few days.  However, these floods are a stark reminder of the increasing vulnerability of urban areas across the world and the need for comprehensive strategies to reduce risk.  The evidence is clear that green infrastructure, as defined below, can increase the resiliency of flood management systems and, when managed for multiple services, can reduce flood risk for many people while also promoting a range of other benefits.

Engineer Takes Part in Eclipse Experiment

For most of us Monday’s solar eclipse was a wonderful spectacle, but some scientists were out gathering data, too. Holly Oldroyd, assistant professor in the UC Davis Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, joined a team led by Chad Higgins at Oregon State University to measure atmospheric fluxes during the eclipse.

As night turns to day and back there are changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure, water vapor and carbon dioxide, and in emissions from soils and plants into the atmosphere. Higgins’ experiment aimed to find out whether the same kinds of changes take place during the very short “night” created by the total solar eclipse. Normally these measurements are taken over time spans of half an hour or so, so the team, which also included researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, had to come up with ways to make accurate measurements over a couple of minutes.

DNA Repair Gone Wrong Leads to Cascade of Chromosome Rearrangements

Homologous Recombination Can Cause More Breaks As It Fixes Them

The traditional view of cancer is that a cell has to sustain a series of hits to its DNA before its defenses break down enough for it to turn cancerous. But cancer researchers have also found that cells can experience very rapid and widespread DNA damage that could quickly lead to cancer or developmental defects.

Now researchers at the University of California, Davis, have found that these complex chromosomal rearrangements can be triggered in a single event when a process used to repair DNA breaks, homologous recombination, goes wrong. The work is published Aug. 10 in the journal Cell.

Swirling Quark-Gluon Plasma is the Swirliest Fluid Ever

STAR detector at Brookhaven

The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector is used to search for signatures of the quark-gluon plasma, a form of matter that filled the early universe. (Brookhaven National Laboratory)

The soup of fundamental particles called the quark-gluon plasma can swirl far faster than any known fluid – faster than the mightiest tornado or the superstorm that is Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.

The results, published Aug. 3 in the journal Nature, come from a new analysis of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment Breaks Ground

A special groundbreaking was held today (July 21) deep underground in South Dakota. Scientists, engineers and guests turned the first shovelfuls of the 800,000 tons of rock that will be excavated to build the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. The cavern will house a giant detector for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).

The goal of DUNE is to better understand neutrinos and their role in the evolution of the universe, including why our universe is made of matter and not antimatter. DUNE will also be able to detect neutrinos from deep space, emitted by supernovae or black holes.

Podcast: Melting Ice and the Quasi Liquid Layer

Water ice is peculiar stuff: Even below freezing, when it should be solid, it has a quasi-liquid layer on the outside. That’s what makes ice slippery. In this month’s Three Minute Egghead podcast, UC Davis chemist Davide Donadio describes his recent research looking at the surface of ice and what it has to do with clouds and air pollution.

https://soundcloud.com/andy-fell/melting-ice

Computer simulation of ice

Computer simulation of the surface of ice shows how layers melt in steps (Credit: Davide Donadio)

More information

Hear more Three Minute Egghead on Soundcloud or iTunes

Related news story: Ice Surface Melts One Step at a Time

Surprise Result: Increasing Dispersal Increases Ecological Diversity

By Kathy Keatley Garvey

A study of microbes that live in the nectar of flowers has turned up an unexpected result that challenges a common assumption in ecology.

It’s been widely assumed that the more easily organisms can disperse between habitats, the more similar the mix of species in those habitats will be.

Sticky Monkeyflower

The flowers of Sticky Monkeyflower contain a mix of microbes that live on nectar. A new study shows how microbial diversity changes between flowers. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Industry Supports UC Davis Coffee Research

The Research Center of the Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) is teaming up with the UC Davis Coffee Center to embark on a two-year project to re-evaluate the scientific assumptions, measurement tools, sensory information, and – most importantly – consumer research that forms the foundation of the coffee industry’s fundamental understanding of coffee brewing.

Students in the UC Davis “Design of Coffee” class learn engineering principles from roasting and brewing coffee.

This research is underwritten with funding from Breville, which produces high-end appliances, including coffee and tea equipment.

For Better Or Worse: Links Between Genetics And Stress

By Diane Nelson

Our genes can influence how we respond to stress. Science shows that some people are more genetically predisposed than others to develop depression and anxiety in response to stressful situations.

UC Davis psychologists Johnna Swartz (left) and Jay Belsky.

UC Davis psychologists Johnna Swartz (left) and Jay Belsky have found that genetic traits that make people vulnerable to stress-related mental health problems, are also those best equipped to respond to positive interventions.

What’s more, researchers say that chronic exposure to stressful conditions—such as poverty, family discord, and poor nutrition—can alter the way genes behave in children and adolescents, making them more susceptible to depression, anxiety, and other negative effects of stress.