Egghead is a blog about research by, with or related to UC Davis. Comments on posts are welcome, as are tips and suggestions for posts. General feedback may be sent to Andy Fell. This blog is created and maintained by UC Davis Strategic Communications, and mostly edited by Andy Fell.
Homologous Recombination Can Cause More Breaks As It Fixes Them
The traditional view of cancer is that a cell has to sustain a series of hits to its DNA before its defenses break down enough for it to turn cancerous. But cancer researchers have also found that cells can experience very rapid and widespread DNA damage that could quickly lead to cancer or developmental defects.
Now researchers at the University of California, Davis, have found that these complex chromosomal rearrangements can be triggered in a single event when a process used to repair DNA breaks, homologous recombination, goes wrong. The work is published Aug. 10 in the journal Cell.
The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector is used to search for signatures of the quark-gluon plasma, a form of matter that filled the early universe. (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
The soup of fundamental particles called the quark-gluon plasma can swirl far faster than any known fluid – faster than the mightiest tornado or the superstorm that is Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.
The results, published Aug. 3 in the journal Nature, come from a new analysis of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Initiative Aims to Support Responsible CRISPR Gene Editing
By Trina Wood
The federal Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) last week announced the Safe Genes program to explore innovative genetic techniques to support bio-innovation and combat biological threats. The effort, supported by a $65 million grant from DARPA over four years, aims to harness gene editing tools in a safe, responsible manner to maximize the benefits of these technologies while minimizing their inherent risks.
Aedes aegypti carries yellow fever, Zika and other viruses. (CDC photo)
A special groundbreaking was held today (July 21) deep underground in South Dakota. Scientists, engineers and guests turned the first shovelfuls of the 800,000 tons of rock that will be excavated to build the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. The cavern will house a giant detector for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).
The goal of DUNE is to better understand neutrinos and their role in the evolution of the universe, including why our universe is made of matter and not antimatter. DUNE will also be able to detect neutrinos from deep space, emitted by supernovae or black holes.
Could too much linoleic acid be making us sick?
By Diane Nelson
There are good and bad fats, nutritionists say. But not all polyunsaturated fats, the so-called good fats, are created equal. A food chemist at UC Davis is exploring whether eating too much linoleic acid—a type of polyunsaturated fat found mainly in vegetable oils—can cause chronic inflammation, headaches, and other health problems.
Food such as salmon that are high in omega-3 fatty acids may be healthier than foods with some vegetable oils. (RafalStachura/Getty Images)
Full post: Not All “Good Fats” Are Created Equal
(771 words, 2 images, estimated 3:05 mins reading time)
By Ana Lucia Cordova-Kreylos
The UC Davis Office of Research this week (July 10) announced the launch of the Microbiome Special Research Program (SRP), designed to leverage and build upon the broad and deep expertise in microbiome science across the university.
“UC Davis has incredible breadth and depth in microbiome research with over 100 laboratories actively pursuing projects with links to agriculture, environment, energy and human and animal health,” said Cameron Carter, interim vice chancellor for research at UC Davis. “The decision to invest in a platform to empower these teams was obvious given our strength in these areas and our potential to charter new frontiers that address some of our world’s most pressing issues.”
Key to Tea’s Benefits May Be in the Soil
By Becky Oskin
Tea has long been linked to human health benefits like preventing cancer and heart disease. But with hundreds of chemical compounds hidden in tea leaves, it is unclear which substances have the strongest effects.
The slew of “healthy” chemicals in tea varies with the variety of plant, how and where it is grown, and how the leaves are processed. Even soil bacteria contribute to a plant’s chemical profile, including its color, taste and aroma.
Full post: Microbes Could Bring Tea to California
(411 words, 1 image, estimated 1:39 mins reading time)
Water ice is peculiar stuff: Even below freezing, when it should be solid, it has a quasi-liquid layer on the outside. That’s what makes ice slippery. In this month’s Three Minute Egghead podcast, UC Davis chemist Davide Donadio describes his recent research looking at the surface of ice and what it has to do with clouds and air pollution.
Computer simulation of the surface of ice shows how layers melt in steps (Credit: Davide Donadio)
Hear more Three Minute Egghead on Soundcloud or iTunes
Related news story: Ice Surface Melts One Step at a Time
Permanent link to this post
(99 words, 1 image, estimated 24 secs reading time)
By Karen Nikos-Rose
A summer hike at 13,000 feet (4,000 meters) is challenging given the lack of oxygen, frigid temperatures, and exposure to elements. Now imagine living year-round at high elevation without your high-tech gear or modern foods.
High-altitude plateaus are challenging places to live, but archaeologists have found hunter-gatherers colonized the Andean Highlands 7,000 years ago. Photo by Lauren A. Hayes
Scientists debate whether early human populations could have done so, but a new UC Davis study confirms that intrepid hunter-gatherers—women, men, and children—called the Andean highlands home over 7,000 years ago.
By Trina Wood
Understanding how live pigs are traded between villages and backyard farmers can help health agencies better understand how devastating swine diseases spread, according to a study published recently in the journal PLOS ONE.
A Georgian pig owner with her animal. Backyard pigs are usually raised for home consumption, and loss of one to disease is a significant blow. Photo credit: FAO