A special groundbreaking was held today (July 21) deep underground in South Dakota. Scientists, engineers and guests turned the first shovelfuls of the 800,000 tons of rock that will be excavated to build the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. The cavern will house a giant detector for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).
The goal of DUNE is to better understand neutrinos and their role in the evolution of the universe, including why our universe is made of matter and not antimatter. DUNE will also be able to detect neutrinos from deep space, emitted by supernovae or black holes.
Could too much linoleic acid be making us sick?
By Diane Nelson
There are good and bad fats, nutritionists say. But not all polyunsaturated fats, the so-called good fats, are created equal. A food chemist at UC Davis is exploring whether eating too much linoleic acid—a type of polyunsaturated fat found mainly in vegetable oils—can cause chronic inflammation, headaches, and other health problems.
Food such as salmon that are high in omega-3 fatty acids may be healthier than foods with some vegetable oils. (RafalStachura/Getty Images)
Full post: Not All “Good Fats” Are Created Equal
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By Ana Lucia Cordova-Kreylos
The UC Davis Office of Research this week (July 10) announced the launch of the Microbiome Special Research Program (SRP), designed to leverage and build upon the broad and deep expertise in microbiome science across the university.
“UC Davis has incredible breadth and depth in microbiome research with over 100 laboratories actively pursuing projects with links to agriculture, environment, energy and human and animal health,” said Cameron Carter, interim vice chancellor for research at UC Davis. “The decision to invest in a platform to empower these teams was obvious given our strength in these areas and our potential to charter new frontiers that address some of our world’s most pressing issues.”
Key to Tea’s Benefits May Be in the Soil
By Becky Oskin
Tea has long been linked to human health benefits like preventing cancer and heart disease. But with hundreds of chemical compounds hidden in tea leaves, it is unclear which substances have the strongest effects.
The slew of “healthy” chemicals in tea varies with the variety of plant, how and where it is grown, and how the leaves are processed. Even soil bacteria contribute to a plant’s chemical profile, including its color, taste and aroma.
Full post: Microbes Could Bring Tea to California
(411 words, 1 image, estimated 1:39 mins reading time)
Water ice is peculiar stuff: Even below freezing, when it should be solid, it has a quasi-liquid layer on the outside. That’s what makes ice slippery. In this month’s Three Minute Egghead podcast, UC Davis chemist Davide Donadio describes his recent research looking at the surface of ice and what it has to do with clouds and air pollution.
Computer simulation of the surface of ice shows how layers melt in steps (Credit: Davide Donadio)
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Related news story: Ice Surface Melts One Step at a Time
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By Karen Nikos-Rose
A summer hike at 13,000 feet (4,000 meters) is challenging given the lack of oxygen, frigid temperatures, and exposure to elements. Now imagine living year-round at high elevation without your high-tech gear or modern foods.
High-altitude plateaus are challenging places to live, but archaeologists have found hunter-gatherers colonized the Andean Highlands 7,000 years ago. Photo by Lauren A. Hayes
Scientists debate whether early human populations could have done so, but a new UC Davis study confirms that intrepid hunter-gatherers—women, men, and children—called the Andean highlands home over 7,000 years ago.
By Trina Wood
Understanding how live pigs are traded between villages and backyard farmers can help health agencies better understand how devastating swine diseases spread, according to a study published recently in the journal PLOS ONE.
A Georgian pig owner with her animal. Backyard pigs are usually raised for home consumption, and loss of one to disease is a significant blow. Photo credit: FAO
By Kathy Keatley Garvey
A study of microbes that live in the nectar of flowers has turned up an unexpected result that challenges a common assumption in ecology.
It’s been widely assumed that the more easily organisms can disperse between habitats, the more similar the mix of species in those habitats will be.
The flowers of Sticky Monkeyflower contain a mix of microbes that live on nectar. A new study shows how microbial diversity changes between flowers. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)
By Diane Nelson
The bioinformatics company Illumina has donated a state-of the-art DNA sequencer to a global plant-breeding effort to fight malnutrition and poverty in Africa by improving the continent’s traditional crops. UC Davis is partnering in the African Orphan Crop Consortium, which is working to map and make public the genomes of 101 indigenous African foods.
These “orphan” crops are crucial to African livelihood and nutrition, but have been mostly ignored by science and seed companies because they are not traded internationally like commodities such as rice, corn, and wheat.
By Ann Filmer
Goals for carbon reduction from sequestration in soils set in the 2015 Paris Agreement are not feasible, according to an international team of climate scientists. Regardless of whether the U.S. remains part of the Paris climate accord, scientists at the University of California, Davis, are developing additional agricultural methods to offset increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, thereby reducing the potential for global warming.
Subsurface drip irrigation in a tomato field at UC Davis. This irrigation method saves water, reduces fertilizer use and reduces emissions of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Photo by Martin Burger, UC Davis.